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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2006| October  | Volume 49 | Issue 4  
    Online since April 5, 2008

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Thrombocytopenia--an indicator of acute vivax malaria.
A Kumar, Shashirekha
October 2006, 49(4):505-8
Thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in vivax malaria but the exact mechanism has not been elucidated. We studied 27 cases of acute vivax malaria out of which 24 cases had thrombocytopenia. This was the most common hematological finding. None had bleeding from any site. Anaemia and splenomegaly were not present in any of the cases. Platelet counts reverted to normal on treatment. Other causes of thrombocytopenia were ruled out by complete history and physical examination, dengue serology and blood culture. DIC was ruled out by peripheral smear examination and measurement of FDP levels. Our study stresses the importance of thrombocytopenia as an early indicator for acute malaria; a finding that is frequent and present even before anemia and splenomegaly set in. The possible mechanisms leading to thrombocytopenia in malaria have been discussed which include immune mechanisms, oxidative stress, alterations in splenic functions and a direct interaction between plasmodium and platelets.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  13 2,401 0
Emerging vancomycin resistance in enterococci in India.
U Ghoshal, A Garg, Dinesh P Tiwari, A Ayyagari
October 2006, 49(4):620-2
Infection caused by vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) leads to adverse outcome and is a real challenge. Despite increasing reports of VRE in different countries, there is scanty data on this issue from India. A total of 685 enterococci were isolated from various clinical samples from January to December 2004. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed as prescribed by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Vancomycin resistance was confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Resistant phenotype was determined by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 685, 456 (67%) were E. faecalis and 229 (33%) were E. faecium. Resistance to various antibiotics in E. faecalis and E. faecium was as follows: ampicillin 33% and 54%, erythromycin 91% and 86%, ciprofloxacin 69% and 81%, tetracycline 50% and 54% and high level gentamicin resistance in 62% and 77% respectively. Vancomycin resistance was confirmed in 10 (1.4%) cases by MIC and all had Van A phenotype by PCR. Emergence of vancomycin resistant enterococci is of great concern because of its epidemic potential and scanty therapeutic options. Prompt diagnosis and efficient infection control measures can restrict its spread.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  9 1,552 0
Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy--a review of seven cases.
A Agarwal, S Pathak, S Gujral
October 2006, 49(4):509-15
Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) also called as Rosai Dorfman disease is a rare histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown etiology. Histological features currently define it. Persistent painless lymphadenopathy due to expansion of sinuses infiltrated with benign histiocytes and plasma cells and emperipolesis are the characteristic features of SHML. Our study includes seven cases (5 nodal and 2 extranodal) of SHML over a 5-year period whose slides and blocks were reviewed. IHC was performed on the main lesion, from a panel of S100, CD68, LCA, CD20, CD3, CD30, CD43, bcl2, cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen. In our series we have work up available in 7 cases out of which a detailed follow-up is available in 5 patients. Out of these 5 patients, 4 have a stable disease, while one developed histiocytic sarcoma after a gap of four years.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  5 1,219 0
Accuracy of cytologic diagnosis of central nervous system tumours in crush preparation.
K Shukla, B Parikh, J Shukla, P Trivedi, B Shah
October 2006, 49(4):483-6
The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness and accuracy of cytologic smears by making crush preparation as a diagnostic method, in central nervous system tumors. 278 patients with central nervous system tumors were investigated. In 98 cases, material was obtained intraoperatively during craniotomy and in 180 cases stereotactic biopsies were done. In all the cases crush preparations were made, and cytologic diagnosis was correlated with final histologic diagnosis. 244 out of 278 patients showed correlation with histopathological diagnosis. So, in present study diagnostic accuracy was 87.76%. In 18 cases no definite diagnosis was made due to inadequate material. Majority of the patients were in age group 31 to 40 years (72 cases). The youngest patient was three years old and the eldest was 87 years old. The most common tumor in intracranial cavity was astrocytoma (56.68%), followed by meningioma (6.88%), medulloblastoma (5.66%) and ependymoma (5.56%). The most common tumor in intraspinal cavity was ependymoma (38.46%), followed by meningioma (23.07%) and schwannoma (23.07%). In conclusion, crush preparation is an effective, simple, rapid, relatively safe and reliable technique for the diagnosis of central nervous system tumors. Diagnostic accuracy of cytology with final histopathological report is established with accuracy rate of 87.76%.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
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Bilateral mycotic cerebral abscess due to aspergillosis--a case report.
K Dash, A Dash, S Pujari, B Das, K Devi, R Mohanty
October 2006, 49(4):555-7
Aspergillosis of central nervous system is an uncommon infection mainly occurring in immunocompromised patient. It may be present in several forms: abscess, meningitis, mycotic aneurysm, infarction and in tumoral form. Here we report a case of cerebral aspergillosis presenting as bilateral frontal lobe abscess without evidence of any underlying systemic disorder or extracranial disease.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  3 1,236 0
Auer rod-like inclusions in myeloma cells in a patient with IgG multiple myeloma.
S Das, N Kakkar, B Ahuja, M Lal
October 2006, 49(4):561-3
Various inclusions have been reported in the past in plasma cells as well as myeloma cells. Most of these represent light chains of immunoglobulins which are concentrated within these cells. Auer rod-like inclusions in myeloma cells have been infrequently reported. They do not influence prognosis in patients with multiple myeloma but are more of a morphological variance. We report a patient of IgG myeloma with auer rod-like inclusions in myeloma cells in the bone marrow aspirates.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  3 1,252 0
Plasmacytoma of the clivus : a case report.
R Goyal, R Gupta, Bishan D Radotra
October 2006, 49(4):568-70
A 60-year-old male presented with headache and diplopia for 2 months. Computed tomography of the head showed a heterogeneously enhancing expansile lytic lesion in clival region. The patient underwent surgery and histopathological examination revealed it to be plasmacytoma of the clivus. The multiple myeloma work-up was negative. Solitary plasmacytoma localized to the skull base is extremely rare. Prior to this, only three case reports of plasmacytoma of the clivus have been described in the English literature.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  3 1,516 0
Infective endocarditis due to Acinetobacter baumannii complex--a case report.
T Menon, S Shanmugasundaram, B Nandhakumar, K Nalina, Balasubramaniam
October 2006, 49(4):576-8
We report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Acinetobacter baumannii complex in a 27-year-old male patient. The patient presented with fever of five days duration, palpitation, dyspnea, cough and chest pain. He had undergone a surgical repair of ruptured aneurysm of sinus of valsalva a month before. The transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a large vegetation on the aortic valve. Three samples of blood for culture grew gram-negative pleomorphic coccobacilli within 24 hours which were identified by cultural and biochemical characteristics to be Acinetobacter baumannii complex. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by Kirby-Bauer method and the isolate were found to be resistant to ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone, Gentamicin, Amikacin, Augmentin, Levofloxacin, Piperacillin-Tazobactam, Netilimicin and sensitive to Imipenem. Patient was initially treated with Ceftraixone and Gentamicin and subsequently with Ampicillin and Amikacin but did not respond to treatment and died of sepsis before therapy with Imipenem could be started.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  3 1,581 0
Mucinous cystadenoma of the renal pelvis with malignant transformation : a case report.
K Mardi, J Sharma, P Mahajan
October 2006, 49(4):595-6
A mucinous cystadenoma of the renal pelvis with malignant transformation is an extremely rare entity. We discuss one such rare occurrence in a 62 year old female who developed mucinous nephrosis due to marked retention of mucin produced by the tumor.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  3 1,066 0
Emergence of extended spectrum beta lactamase mediated resistance in neonatal septicemia.
CS Vinodkumar, YF Neelagund
October 2006, 49(4):616-9
This study was carried out in microbiology department of Gulbarga university, Gulbarga to find out the frequency of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESbL) producing gram-negative bacilli isolated from neonatal septicemic cases. This study was carried out from Oct 2001 to June 2004. A total of 471 consecutive Gram-negative bacilli were recovered during the study period from blood samples. Extended spectrum beta lactamase detection in gram-negative isolates was carried out by double disk synergistic method on Mueller Hinton agar. A susceptibility disk containing amoxicillin-clavulanate was placed as the inhibitor of beta lactamase in the center of the plate, and cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and aztreonam disks were placed 30 mm (center to center) from the amoxicillin-clavulanate disk. Enhancement of the zone of inhibition of the oxyimino-lactam caused by the synergy of the clavulanate in the amoxicillin-clavulanate disk was considered as evidence of ESbL production. Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603 were used as control strains. The frequency of ESbL producing gram-negative bacilli among the neonatal septicemic cases was 22.7%.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  3 1,245 0
Pure red cell aplasia with malignant thymoma : a rarity.
D Jain, N Varma, K Vaiphei, S Varma, RS Dhaliwal
October 2006, 49(4):553-4
Pure red cell aplasia sometimes accompanies thymoma. Herein we report a PRCA patient with malignant thymoma. Only two Indian cases of PRCA with malignant thymoma have been reported so far and six cases in the world literature, to the best of our knowledge. This paper describes a malignant thymoma in a 40 year old male who later on developed pure red cell aplasia 7 months after thymectomy.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  2 1,158 0
Synchronous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) of warty type and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) : case report.
K Pai, S Pai, A Gupta, P Rao, P Renjhen
October 2006, 49(4):585-7
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is a precancerous lesion of the vulva, which has been referred to in the past with varied terminology. It can be associated with multicentricity of other neoplastic squamous lesions in the cervix and vagina. We report a case of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and concomitant cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in a 30 year old female. An attempt is made to put forth the recent terminology of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  2 1,292 0
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of ceruminous gland : a case report.
Rajendra S Garbyal, M Kumar, A Bohra
October 2006, 49(4):587-9
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the external auditory canal (EAC) is a very rare malignant tumor and its diagnosis is frequently missed because of the superficial nature of biopsies. A 30 year old male presented with 6 months history of recurrent painful right ear discharge. On examination there was a nodule of 2 cms in diameter. The microscopic examination of the punch biopsy specimen of tumor revealed typical features of an adenoid cystic carcinoma. While reporting the biopsies of external auditory canal one should keep the adenoid cystic carcinoma as one of the possible differentials, especially if the biopsy is superficial, problem is recurrent and histopathological features suggest the granulation tissue.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  2 1,110 0
Primary chondrosarcoma of lung : case report and review of literature.
K Shukla, D Jetly, B Parikh, B Shah, N Patel, H Mehta, H Panchal
October 2006, 49(4):570-3
A case of primary chondrosarcoma of the left lung in 50 year-old man is presented. The tumor was diagnosed as primary chondrosarcoma of the lung after exclusion of any primary lesion elsewhere. Histologically, tumor consisted of predominantly chondromatous lesion. Immunohistochemistry showed that tumor cells positive for S-100 protein and vimentin, and negative for epithelial markers. On the basis of clinical, histological and immunohistochemical studies, the tumor was diagnosed as a primary chondrosarcoma of the lung.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  2 1,072 0
Fetus in fetu or differentiated teratomas?
A Basu, S Jagdish, Krishnan R Iyengar, D Basu
October 2006, 49(4):563-5
Two cases of congenital teratoma were operated upon. In view of the high degree of organoid differentiation of the teratomas with rudimentary limbs, intestine, brain-like and pulmonary tissues, it was difficult to distinguish it from fetus-in-fetu. In the light of the data obtained and extensive review of related literature, we consider that fetus-in-fetu and teratoma may not be unrelated entities. Our cases support the view held that fetuses in fetu are highly differentiated teratomas.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  2 1,194 0
Primary amyloidosis presenting as intrahepatic cholestasis.
Sanjay K Bandyopadhyay, R Bandyopadhyay, A Dutta
October 2006, 49(4):557-9
Hepatic involvement in primary amyloidosis is not rare but is often clinically silent. A mild elevation of the serum alkaline phosphatase level and hepatomegaly are the most common findings. We report a case of primary amyloidosis in an adult male presenting with intrahepatic cholestasis where viral, drug, alcohol, and autoimmune etiologies were all excluded and the definite diagnosis was established by liver biopsy with Congo red staining. Subsequently the patient was found to have monoclonal light chain disorder.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  2 1,047 0
Osteoblastoma : a study of 12 cases.
NA Jambhekar, S Desai, D Khapake
October 2006, 49(4):487-90
This study comprises of 12 cases of osteoblastoma. There were 8 males and 4 females, with a mean age of 17.8 years. The vertebral column, including the sacrum was the most frequent site (10 of 12 cases). Radiologically the lesions were lytic, well circumscribed and expansile. The histology consisted of intercommunicating osteoid seams lined by plump osteoblasts with numerous intervening ectatic stromal vessels. Despite these characteristic features, the distinction of osteoblastoma from osteoblastic osteosarcoma can at times be very problematic. The lack of lace-like osteoid or sheets of osteoblasts, and inconspicuous mitotic activity are useful distinguishing features. The purpose of this communication is to highlight the microscopic features for the correct recognition of osteoblastoma and its distinction from other osteoid forming bone lesions.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  2 1,139 0
Secondary and tertiary structure aberration of alpha globin chain in haemoglobin Q-India disorder.
V Wiwanitkit
October 2006, 49(4):491-4
Hemoglobinopathies are important inherited disorders with considerable high prevalence in Asia. Hemoglobin Q-India is a hemoglobinopathy that was first identified in India. Hb Q-India is caused by the mutation GAC --> CAC at codon 64 of the alpha-1 globin gene. The correlation between this hemoglobinopathy and thalassemia was reported. Although primary structure of disorder Hb Q-India is well documented, the secondary and tertiary structures, which can help explain the pathogenesis of the Hb Q-India disorder is not known. In this study, amino acid sequence of human alpha globin was searched using ExPASY and used for further mutation to Hb Q-India disorder. The derived sequences, alpha globin chains in both normal and Hb Q-India disorder, were used for further investigation for secondary and tertiary structures. Modeling of these proteins for secondary and tertiary structures was done using the NNPREDICT server and CPHmodels 2.0 Server, respectively. In this study, the secondary and tertiary structures of human alpha globin chains of normal and hemoglobin Q-India disorder are calculated and presented. Based on this information, the main difference between the predicted alpha globin secondary structures of normal and Hb Q-India is an extra helix in the Hb Q-India. The predicted tertiary structure also supports this finding. The results from this study can be good data for further study on Hb Q-India disorder, which can bring to the further understanding on this hemoglobinopathy.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  2 1,590 0
Does c-erbB-2 expression have a role in medulloblastoma prognosis?
Munita Meenu Bal, B Das Radotra, R Srinivasan, Suresh C Sharma
October 2006, 49(4):535-9
The prognosis of patients with medulloblastoma has remained same for the last two decades. This study evaluated the role of c-erbB-2 expression in medulloblastoma as a prognostic marker. Fifty cases of medulloblastomas were investigated for the expression of c-erbB-2 protein using immunohistochemistry. The expression of c-erbB-2 was correlated with age, histology and disease-free survival (DFS). Thirty-five (70%) tumors were c-erbB-2 positive. Immunoreactivity for c-erbB-2 receptor was observed as mixed cytoplasmic and membrane positivity of tumour cells. The mean DFS in c-erbB-2 positive cases was 19.81 months compared to 48.33 months in c-erbB-2 negative cases. c-erbB-2 positivity was found to be an independent predictor of poor outcome in medulloblastoma (p value < 0.05). No correlation of c-erbB-2 expression was observed with the age of patient and the histological type of tumour. Additionally, c-erbB-4 expression was also evaluated in these tumours. Thirty-three cases showed co-expression of c-erbB-2 and c-erbB-4 proteins. However, c-erbB-4 expression alone was not associated with poor outcome, whereas its co-expression with c-erbB-2 was associated with shorter DFS (p < 0.05).
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  2 1,217 0
Central neurocytoma : a clinico-pathological study of eight cases.
LS Rajesh, D Jain, BD Radotra, AK Banerjee, VK Khosla, RK Vasishta
October 2006, 49(4):543-5
Central neurocytomas are benign neuronal tumours generally found in the lateral or third ventricles. They are rare, comprising < 1% of all brain tumours. It is frequently confused with other tumours of the central nervous system particularly oligodendroglioma. The present study was done to analyse the histopathological features including immunohistochemical profile of these rare tumours. Eight cases were taken up for the study. Seven of the cases had an intraventricular location and one was located outside the ventricles. Increased intracranial pressure was the most common presenting symptom. Microscopically all tumours were composed of small uniform cells with perinuclear halos and regular round nuclei. The tumour in extraventricular location showed atypical features. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for neuronal markers. The present series highlights the characteristic clinical and pathological findings of this rare brain tumour. Immunostaining for neuronal markers are essential for distinguishing them from other small round cell tumours of the brain.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  2 1,196 0
Buerger's disease : clinical and histomorphological study.
AR Subhashree, R Gopalan, K Baba Krishnan, N Shekar
October 2006, 49(4):540-2
There is an extremely high prevalence of Thromboangiitis Obliterans (TAO) or Buerger's disease (BD) in India among people of low socioeconomic class who smoke beedies (homemade cigarettes with raw tobacco). The aim of this study was to study the clinical and histo-morphological aspects of Buerger's disease with relevance to age at presentation in the local population. The study comprised of 25 cases (all were men and were smokers) of clinically diagnosed BD based on Shionoya's criteria. The mean age was 47 years. The specimens consisted of 21 biopsies, 2 end-arterectomies and 2 amputations. Formalin fixed, routinely processed, paraffin embedded tissue sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) and Verhoeff's elastic stain. They had claudication pain either in the ankle (5) or in the calf (2) or both (13). 24 had infrapopliteal disease and 9 showed upper limb involvement. 21 showed migratory thrombophlebitis also. Histomorphological presentation included the following features: Luminal thrombosis (14), fresh thrombosis (4), chronic inflammation in the vessel wall (10), within the thrombus (1) and around perivascular channels and nerve bundles (4). Internal elastic lamina showed reduplication in 13, undulation in 9 and fragmentation in 9 cases. Media of the vessel showed the following features: fibrosis (9), hypertrophy (9) and calcification (5) Adventitial haemorrhage, cholesterol clefts and atherosclerotic plaque formation were the other changes seen. In our study the following histopathological features were consistently seen. Thrombus (with or without recanalisation), inflammatory cell infiltrate (within the thrombus wall or periadventitial tissue), subintimal and medial fibrosis and changes in internal elastic lamina. These features were also highlighted in other studies. However in our study, medial hypertrophy and calcification were observed as additional features.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  1 1,460 0
Dubin-Johnson syndrome--a clinicopathologic study of twenty cases.
A Rastogi, N Krishnani, R Pandey
October 2006, 49(4):500-4
Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS) is a rare benign chronic disorder of bilirubin metabolism, characterized by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, darkly pigmented liver and presence of abnormal pigment in hepatic parenchymal cells. This is a retrospective study of twenty cases of DJS highlighting their major clinical and pathological findings. Liver biopsies were available in all the cases, obtained during a fourteen-year period (January 1991 to March 2005). The patients' age ranged from 7-63 years (median 21 years). These twenty cases comprised 13 males and 7 females. Major clinical manifestations were recurrent or persistent jaundice, abdominal pain and fever. Duration of illness ranged from 9 months to 58 years (median 10 years). All of them had conjugated hyberbilirubinemia and total serum bilirubin levels ranged between 1.4-13 mg/dl (mean 4.4 mg/dl). Liver biopsies revealed presence of coarse granular brown pigment in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes more concentrated in the pericanalicular region and more prominent in centrilobular hepatocytes. Associated findings were presence of hepatitis B virus related chronic hepatitis (1), history of tubercular lymphadenitis (1), chronic cholecystitis in (2), coronary heart disease (1) and exacerbation during pregnancy (1).
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  1 2,080 0
HBsAg seropositivity among multi-transfused thalassemic children.
V Khakhkhar, PJ Joshi
October 2006, 49(4):516-8
Thalassemia major patients are transfusion dependent; they are at high risk of post transfusion viral infections including Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The present study was undertaken to find out the proportion of HBV infection among multiple transfused patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted among thalassemic children of either sex between 2 to 13 years of age, who attended the tertiary care hospital (G. G. Hospital, Jamnagar). Subjects were divided according to number of transfusions and the immunization status. HBsAg was detected by ELISA. Of 90 patients 6 (6.6%) were positive for HBsAg. Of 29 patients who had received above hundred transfusions 3 (10.34%) were sero-positive for HBV. Un-immunized patients were at double risk for acquiring HBV infection. This study suggests that the screening of blood of donors for HBV should be strictly followed and implementation of immunization against HBV is a must, especially in a high-risk group like thallasemic patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  1 1,186 0
Giardia lamblia trophozoites in gastric biopsies.
V Misra, SP Misra, M Dwivedi, PA Singh
October 2006, 49(4):519-23
To assess the prevalence of gastric giardiasis in gastric biopsies of patients with carcinoma stomach and in patients taking treatment for duodenal ulcer. Gastric biopsy specimens from 54 patients of carcinoma stomach and 100 antral biopsies from patients taking treatment for duodenal ulcer were included in the study. Sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, methylene blue and May Grunwald-Giemsa stains and examined for presence of Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Eight out of 54 (14.9%) biopsies of gastric carcinoma patients harboured trophozoites of Giardia lamblia. Associated H. pylori infection was present in all biopsies (8/8; 100%). Atrophy and intestinal metaplasia was present in 62.5% (5/8) and 25% (2/8) cases respectively. Sections from seven out of 35 patients (20%) taking treatment for duodenal ulcer showed presence of G. lamblia. H. pylori infection, gastritis and atrophy were found in 85.7% (6/7), 71.4% (5/7) and 28.6% (2/7) cases respectively. First gastric biopsy in these patients was negative for G. lamblia but 2nd and 3rd biopsies were positive. A careful search for G. lamblia trophozoites should be made while examining the gastric biopsies, especially in patients with carcinoma stomach, intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis and those taking treatment for duodenal ulcer. This may help in indirect diagnosis of clinically unsuspected cases of intestinal giardiasis and may explain persistence of vague upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) symptoms despite clearance of H. pylori in patients on anti-ulcer therapy.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  1 1,759 0
Role of FAB classification of acute leukemias in era of immunophenotyping.
Man Updesh Sachdeva, J Ahluwalia, R Das, N Varma, G Garewal
October 2006, 49(4):524-7
French-American-British classification for leukemias had been widely accepted due to its objectiveness and good reproducibility. WHO classification of leukemias was formulated in 1997 with a purpose of further enhancing the objectivity. However, the requirement of cytogenetics and immunophenotyping makes it difficult for many countries like India to put WHO classification in routine use. This study was carried to know the effectiveness of FAB classification in an era of technical advancement. A retrospective analysis of all acute leukemias over a period of 2 years was done. Out of total of 469 cases of acute leukemias, 193 were diagnosed as Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), 200 as Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), and 76 cases diagnosed as Acute Leukemia, cytochemically undifferentiated. Hence, only 16% of all leukemias remained unclassifiable. Subclassification of AML cases revealed a much higher percentage of AML-M3, as compared to western literature. In conclusion, FAB classification, based on morphology and simple cytochemical stains, remains effective enough, although cytogenetics and immunophenotyping can add to diagnostic accuracy in some cases.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  1 1,620 0
Incidence of megaloblastic anaemia and its correction in leishmaniasis--a prospective study at BPKIHS hospital, Nepal.
Arvind K Sinha, S Rijal, P Karki, S Majhi
October 2006, 49(4):528-31
Fifty (50) cases of Leishmaniasis were included in a prospective study after making the diagnosis based on the demonstration of L D Bodies on bone marrow aspirate. Hemoglobin (Hb) and total leucocyte count (TLC) were less than 10 gm/dl and 4000 per/ml respectively in 22 out of 50 cases. Among 50 cases, 30 showed macrocytic red cell and hypersegmented neutrophils on peripheral blood smear as features of megaloblastic anemia. Out of 30 cases of leishmaniasis with megaloblastic anemia, 10 cases showed decreased reticulocyte count. Bone marrow aspiration cytology showed megaloblastic maturation in erythroid series and giant metamyelocytes in myeloid series in all 30 cases of leishmaniasis with megaloblastic changes. Bone marrow iron was also increased in these cases. However megakaryocyte was normal in all. Among 30 cases of leishmaniasis with megaloblastic changes, 15 cases were treated with sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) only and other 15 with SAG, folic acid and Vit. B12. Rest 20 cases of leishmaniasis without megaloblastic changes were also treated with SAG only. After treatment with SAG alone as well as with SAG, folic acid and vit. B12, hemoglobin and TLC improved in all 50 cases. Of 15 cases of leishmaniasis with megaloblastic changes, who were treated with SAG, folic acid and vit. B12, the reticulocyte count reached at peak on the 7th day and normalized at the end of 4th week. Red blood cells (RBC) also became normocytic normochromic and neutrophils became normal on peripheral blood smear. But no change was observed in reticulocyte count, RBC and white blood cell (WBC) morphology on peripheral blood smear in cases of leishmaniasis without megaloblastic changes and other 15 cases of leishmaniasis with megaloblastic changes, who received SAG only.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  1 1,378 0
Is seroprevalence of HTLV-I/II among blood donors in India relevant?
H Kumar, PK Gupta
October 2006, 49(4):532-4
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I/II (HTLV-I/II) is associated with certain hematologic and neurologic disorders. Seroprevalence studies demonstrate that the distribution of HTLV-I/II is heterogeneous worldwide and not specific to one region. Because blood is one of the major routes of transmission of the virus, blood banks of several countries routinely screen all blood donations for HTLV-I/II. The aim of the present study was to assess the seroprevalence rate of HTLV-I/II antibodies among Indian blood donors and to confirm the positive rates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Between Jan 2004 to May 2005, consecutive blood samples of 10,000 blood donors were collected at the blood bank of Armed Forces Medical College, Pune. The samples were screened for HTLV-I/II by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Screening resulted in 18 (0.18%) positive samples, of which 14 (77.8%) samples were also positive by PCR. The prevalence of HTLV-I/II carriers in India seems to be negligible and is not a major public health hazard. Hence, routine screening of Indian blood donors for antibody to HTLV-I/II is not warranted due to its low prevalence in India.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  1 1,135 0
Microfilariae in bone marrow aspiration smears, correlation with marrow hypoplasia : a report of six cases.
S Sharma, A Rawat, A Chowhan
October 2006, 49(4):566-8
Microfilariae have been reported in various cytological preparations, however there are very few case reports describing microfilariae in bone marrow aspirates. We report six such cases with the interesting finding of marrow hypoplasia in five of these cases.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  1 1,147 0
Fibromatosis of the breast--a case report.
B Arora, S Gahlawat, V Gupta, B Sachdeva, P Sharma, S Rana
October 2006, 49(4):580-1
A case of fibromatosis of the breast in a 30 years old female is described. Only a few cases have been previously reported. It is anticipated that fibromatosis of breast behaves in a similar fashion to fibromatosis occurring in other sites. It is a locally aggressive lesion which exhibits a high incidence of local recurrence following incomplete excision.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  1 1,078 0
Carcinoma within a fibroadenoma : a case report.
AL Hemalatha, AR Raghupathi, TM Karthikeyan, Deepak B Kumar, HB Shashidhar
October 2006, 49(4):592-4
Carcinoma within a fibroadenoma is an extremely rare occurrence with a reported incidence of 0.1% and is most often diagnosed incidentally on post-operative examination of excision biopsy specimens. One such case is reported here for its rarity and also for stressing upon the need for compulsory excision of all breast masses clinically diagnosed as fibroadenoma and for highlighting the importance of histopathological evaluation of all breast masses irrespective of their clinical diagnosis as benign.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  1 1,123 0
Increased emperipolesis in megakaryocytes in a case of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
S Sharma, A Rawat
October 2006, 49(4):631-631
Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  1 783 0
Emphysematous pyelonephritis : report of 4 cases.
V Malhotra, H Puri, BS Aulakh, V Mehta
October 2006, 49(4):610-2
Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare, life endangering suppurative infection of the renal parenchyma and perirenal spaces. The disease is encountered mainly in patients with diabetes mellitus and is characterized by the production of intrarenal and, occasionally, perirenal gas. We present 4 cases of emphysematous pyelonephritis encountered in our hospital with review of the literature.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  1 1,137 0
Diffuse multifocal chorangiomatosis of the placenta with multiple intestinal stenosis of the fetus : combination of rare causes for nonimmune hydrops fetalis.
A Chopra, Venkateswaran K Iyer, R Thapar, N Singh
October 2006, 49(4):600-2
Non-immune causes of hydrops fetalis are rare but frequently fatal. Identification of the cause for hydrops fetalis is essential to institute therapy. Chorangiomatosis and intestinal stenosis have not been previously reported as aetiological factors for the development of hydrops. We report a fetus born with hydrops associated with both of these conditions. A 1575 gms preterm neonate was born to a multigravida at 31 weeks of gestation. Emergency caesarean section was performed after detection of hydrops by prenatal ultrasonography. Baby had generalized edema at birth and died after 3 days due to progressive heart failure. At autopsy there was generalized edema and effusions. There were multiple stenotic segments in the intestine. Placenta showed numerous chorangiomas varying from 0.2 to 3 cm in diameter, hence diagnosed as diffuse multifocal chorangiomatosis. Examination of the placenta at neonatal autopsy is an essential part of assessment for hydrops fetalis. Chorangiomatosis is a rare and under reported condition which can cause prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, pre-eclampsia and rarely hydrops fetalis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  1 1,305 0
Castleman's disease, intermediate type : a case report.
V Raphael, Raphael H Lyngdoh
October 2006, 49(4):603-4
Castleman's disease or giant lymph node hyperplasia is a distinct form of lymph node hyperplasia. Histologically, there are 2 variants, hyaline vascular variant which occurs in 90% of the cases and plasma cell type which is rare. We encountered a 70 year old man with Castleman's disease showing intermediate features consisting of both hyaline vascular and plasma cell elements presenting as cervical lymphadenopathy. Following surgical excision, the patient was relieved of his constitutional symptoms and had no recurrence even after 6 months of follow-up.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,191 0
Clinicopathological study of dermolipoma--a report of four cases.
Rajpal Singh Punia, A Nanda, H Mohan, Rakesh Kumar Bansal
October 2006, 49(4):605-7
Dermolipomas are congenital solid choristomas usually located in the superotemporal fornix, near the lacrimal gland and lateral rectus muscle. Retrospective analysis of four consecutive cases of dermolipoma reported between Jan 1994 and July 2005 was done. Three cases were males and one was female and in all the cases swelling was first noted in the early childhood. Histologically they show squamous epithelium lined tissue containing mature adipose tissue in addition to bundles of dense collagen and adnexal structures which were present in all our cases. Surgical excision of dermolipoma is conservative and confined to the irritating dermal surface or the visible portion of the lesion.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,738 0
Disseminated herpes simplex infection with cystic fibrosis : a case report.
R Goyal, R Nada, A Das, Ram Kumar Marwaha
October 2006, 49(4):607-9
A 6 months old female infant presented with history of fever, cough and severe respiratory distress. There was past history of recurrent attacks of pneumonia. She succumbed to the illness after a hospital stay of 7 days. Postmortem revealed morphological evidence of cystic fibrosis along with herpes simplex infection of liver and adrenals. The co-existence of disseminated herpes simplex infection and cystic fibrosis is very rare.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,281 0
Nasal glial heterotopy in childhood : a case report highlighting the morphological and immunohistochemical features.
P Kathuria, S Agarwal
October 2006, 49(4):612-4
We present a case of a 5 months old infant who presented with difficulty in breathing and a visible intranasal swelling. Clinical examination revealed a reddish mass medial to the middle turbinate in the left nasal cavity. MRI was done and a provisional diagnosis of nasal glioma was suggested. The mass was surgically excised and sent for histopathology which showed it to be comprising of astrocytes and neuroglial fibers intermixed with a fibrovascular connective tissue stroma. The presence of Glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) confirmed the presence of glial tissue.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,050 0
Paratesticular malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour : a case report.
S Radha, T Afroz, G Satyanarayana
October 2006, 49(4):614-5
Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) of intrascrotal extra testicular site are extremely rare with only few cases reported in literature. These are highly malignant tumours most often associated with neurofibromatosis. The incidence in general population is 0.001%. A 35-year-old male presented with swelling of the scrotal sac of three months duration. There were no features of neurofibromatosis. The lesion was excised and was diagnosed as MPNST. The patient developed recurrence within two months.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,021 0
Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing gram negative bacilli in a tertiary referral hospital of Assam--experience with two methods.
R Nath, L Saikia, J Mahanta
October 2006, 49(4):623-5
Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL) are enzymes produced in some gram negative bacilli that mediate resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins. 683 clinical isolates of Escherisia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were studied for their capacity to produce ESBL. Isolates showing resistance to at least two of the third generation cephalosporins were studied for ESBL production by Jarlier technique and combination disc methods. Out of the 457 E. Coli and 226 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in Assam Medical College, 29.76% and 53.1% were resistant to two cephalosporins of which 29.41% and 29.16% strains showed production of ESBL. However, 6 (4.41%) and 16 (13.34%) strains additionally showed production of ESBL when tested with combination disc method. Though the Jarlier technique is popular, for detection of ESBL, yet false negative results warrants for alternative method. In the absence of molecular detection methods in routine clinical microbiology laboratory, combination disc method appears to be a better option.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,267 0
Simple scheme for identification of common species of enterobacteriaceae.
Gopal Nandlal Agrawal, S Ahmad, Sandeep Bhaskarrao Kokate, Suresh Vasant Jalgaonkar
October 2006, 49(4):626-30
We propose a simple scheme for the identification of enterobacteriaceae species which routinely necessitates numerous biochemical tests and prolonged time span. In the scheme, family enterobacteriaceae is initially divided into four major groups depending on two important biochemical reactions viz. Lactose fermentation (L) and Methyl red test (MR). Each of the four groups, Group I (L + MR+), Group II (L + MR-), Group III (L- MR-), Group IV (L- MR+) can further be differentiated by using few tests. Eleven genera and 23 species can be identified by this scheme using limited biochemical tests. As many as 990 strains of enterobacteriaceae were subjected to standard biochemical tests and proposed simple scheme for identification. The discrepancy was observed only with 8 atypical strains of E. coli.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,684 0
Urinary bladder leiomyoma.
KS Bhople, PV Kulkarni, RN Satarkar
October 2006, 49(4):632-3
Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 616 0
Seroprevalence of HIV infection in patients with history of multiple blood transfusions.
N Jindal, A Aggarwal
October 2006, 49(4):633-4
Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 448 0
In vitro activity of azithromycin as an antipseudomonal agent.
A Mahapatra, A Mahapatra, S Padhi, S Mahapatro, Sudhir Kumar Ghosh
October 2006, 49(4):634-5
Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 521 0
A report of two cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and synchronous parathyroid adenoma.
D Varma, S Nigam, N Singhal, AK Mandal, A Kakkar
October 2006, 49(4):635-6
Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 697 0
Metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma of lung : a case report.
S Mohindroo, Jai Shree Sharma
October 2006, 49(4):597-9
A 48 year old male patient, operated five years back for sub mandibular swelling proved on histopathologic examination to be adenoid cystic carcinoma presented in the ENT department, I. G. medical hospital with pain on both sides of the chest. CT scan of the chest showed multiple lesions of variable sizes. CT guided FNAC as well as biopsy of the lung lesion was performed. Cytodiagnosis and histopathological examinations revealed features of cribiform type of adenoid cystic carcinoma. This case is reported here for its metastasis to the lungs and prolonged survival even with multiple metastasis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,258 0
Solitary intraductal papilloma of the breast--a diagnostic dilemma and the role of conferencing between surgeons and cytologist.
Kamal M Meherbano, M Jaywant, J Girish, B Kiran, K Sanjay, J Anjali, L Nilima, S Dilip, Y Vikas, K Ratnamala, Mahesh S Walde
October 2006, 49(4):582-5
A 40 year female, presented with the complaints of spontaneous, sticky, blood stained discharge from the nipple of the left breast since 6 months. On examination there was no lump palpable in either breast. Cytology of the nipple discharge (ND) showed scanty cellularity consisting of tight papillary clusters of ductal cells in a hemorrhagic and inflammatory background. The nuclei were bland and showed degenerative atypia. Mammography showed no significant lesion. Our patient underwent microdochechtomy. Histopathology showed intraductal papilloma. Limitations of cytology must be kept in mind by both, the pathologist and the surgeon. The cytological diagnosis of a papillary tumor is provisional and the definitive diagnosis must await histological examination. In view of rarity of this lesion, combined with the overlapping of cytologic features in benign and malignant papillary lesions, conferencing and communication with the surgeon should be an integral part of patient evaluation and management. In our case this approach resulted in less radical excision of breast tissue.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,300 0
Benign fibrous histiocytoma of bone : a case report.
KS Bhople, PV Kulkarni, N Arora, R Satarkar
October 2006, 49(4):589-91
Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) occurs commonly in soft tissues with very few cases of BFH of bone on record. We report a case of BFH of tibia in fifty year old male who presented with supracondylar fracture femur due to trivial fall and a brief review of literature.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,200 0
Post-irradiation carcinosarcoma of uterus--a case report.
A Barindra Sharma, G Pukhrambam, S Laishram
October 2006, 49(4):559-61
The carcinosarcoma (malignant mixed mullerian tumour) of uterus is an aggressive neoplasm composing of malignant glands in the malignant stroma showing biphasic appearance. A 55 year old woman presented with discharge per vaginum of one month duration. Earlier she was given radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of vulva, six years back. Abdominal examination was insignificant. USG suggested presence of post-radiation effect with uterine mass. Panhysterectomy was done and on histopathology, the diagnosis of carcinosarcoma (heterologous variant) was made. The case is being reported and discussed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,185 0
Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis : a case report.
Duddi Sreehari Swaroop, Beemaraju Venkata Vydehi, Sarala Jyothi Bai
October 2006, 49(4):573-5
Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare, autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized histologically by deposition of hyaline, collagen like substance aberrantly synthesized by the cells of the connective tissue and deposited within many organs, typically within the skin, gingiva, joints and bones. We report this rare case of Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis in a young boy who presented clinically with multiple papulonodular skin lesions, non tender soft tissue masses over the scalp, face, anterior chest wall, back, periarticular regions of the extremities with restricted mobility of joints and gingival hypertrophy. Calcifications were seen within the tumor shadows in the skull X-Rays. Histopathological study revealed characteristic features consistent with Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. We report this case in view of its rarity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,157 0
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin's syndrome) : a case report.
S Rao, S Arulselvi, K Gupta, R Arora, D Shrivastava
October 2006, 49(4):578-80
A case of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is presented and its varied clinical manifestations and multi-system involvement are emphasised. Our case presented with an early onset of symptoms but sought medical help later on for progressively increasing jaw swelling and pain. On further evaluation, multiple pigmented skin papules, palmar pits, multiple jaw cysts, skull bone osteoporosis, bifid ribs and kyphosis were present. Systemic involvement was minimal. There was no significant family history.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,112 0
Immunohistochemical study of the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostatic carcinoma.
S Rana, R Sen, R Kalra, B Arora, P Sharma, S Gahlawat
October 2006, 49(4):495-9
The present study provides an analysis of immunohistochemical expression and localization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in formalin fixed paraffin embedded specimens of prostate. Thirty-five cases each of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and prostatic carcinoma and 30 cases of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) were taken up for study. Streptavidin biotin peroxidase method was employed for immunohistochemical staining. EGFR positivity was observed in all the cases (100%) of BPH and PIN and in only 10 cases (28.5%) of prostatic carcinoma. In both BPH and PIN the basal cells revealed significantly higher intensity and percentage cell positivity than the luminal cells. Intensity and percentage of positively stained basal cells in BPH was higher than PIN basal cells but the difference was not statistically significant. The intensity and percentage cell positivity of BPH basal cells and PIN basal and luminal cells were significantly greater than the epithelial cells of prostatic carcinoma. Presently, the significance of variable expression of EGFR in various types of prostatic lesions is unknown.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,191 0
Post-independence development of Indian pathology.
SJ Nagalotimath
October 2006, 49(4):479-81
Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 741 0
Migration of steatonecrosis in pancreatitis.
D Kusum, S Semlani, Jaya R Deshpande
October 2006, 49(4):546-7
Fat necrosis in pancreatitis has been reported in mesentery, gut serosa and distant sites like subcutaneous fat and fatty marrow. We present a case of chronic pancreatitis wherein fat necrosis was seen in the muscularis propria and submucosa of small intestine in addition to the serosa. Saponified fatty acid crystalloids, not seen in every case, were seen in these foci of fat necrosis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,285 0
Serological study of parvovirus B19 infection in women with recurrent spontaneous abortions.
J Kishore, I Gupta
October 2006, 49(4):548-50
The feto-pathogenic association of parvovirus B19 (B19) has been sparingly studied in women with abortion, but not in women with recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA). Serum samples from 116 women with RSA who were pre-screened for S-TORCH, Chlamydia trachomatis infections, anatomical, chromosomal, endocrinal abnormality and Rh incompatibility and those who had no such known causes of abortion were included in the study. Sera were also collected from 136 normal pregnant women and 120 normal non-pregnant women as disease and normal control respectively. All sera were tested at 1:400 dilutions for B19 IgM by in-house ELISA using cloned and baculovirus expressed VP1 and VP2 antigens of B19. The frequency of anti-B19 IgM antibodies in women with RSA was 19.8%, in pregnant females it was 11% and in normal non-pregnant female was 5%. Sera of 23 women with RSA which were positive for B19 IgM tested negative for B19 DNA by PCR. Patients with RSA should be screened for B19 infection and guidelines for treatment should emerge.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,145 0
Colonic cancer in young adults--a report of two cases.
R Kalyani, KM Prathima, R Rupnarayan, SH Srikantia
October 2006, 49(4):551-2
Colonic carcinoma in young adults are rare and has a higher mortality and morbidity because of poor histological type and delay in diagnosis. We are reporting two cases of mucinous adenocarcinoma of caecum and sigmoid colon in young males.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 1,075 0
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