Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology

: 2023  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 19--23

SARS-CoV-2 induced changes in the lungs based on autopsy cases

Mina Miroslavova Pencheva1, Sylvia Nikolaeva Genova2 
1 Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2 Department of General and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Plovdiv; University Multiprofile Hospital for Active Medical Treatment “Sveti Georgi”EAD, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Correspondence Address:
Mina Miroslavova Pencheva
15A VasilAprilov Bul., Plovdiv

Context: Researchers throughout the world devote enormous efforts to reveal the peculiarities of the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, however, it continues to surprise and cause the death of millions of people. Aims: This article aims to study the molecular mechanisms provoked by SARS-CoV-2, the virus-induced changes in Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) functionality, in the vascular homeostasis through CD34 expression, B-cell immunity through the expression of CD20 and CD79α, and adhesion molecules through E-cadherin. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, descriptive, and observational study. Methods and Material: A total of 15 autopsies of patients deceased by COVID-19 infection, confirmed by PCR, were performed. The lungs of all patients were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for ACE2, E-cadherin, CD34, CD20, and CD79α. Results: Immunohistological analysis showed increased ACE2 expression in all lung autopsy material affected by COVID-19 infection and we found a higher intensity of ACE2 expression than that of a healthy lung. CD20 examination reveals total deficiency of B-cells in the pulmonary parenchyma and CD79α is also absent. E-Cadherin is not expressed in the basal cellular sections where the contact elements are missing. CD34 demonstrates a desquamation of the endothelial cells, which indicates a direct damage of the vascular walls. Conclusions: We found that patients who died after severe COVID-19 had high immune deficiency and impaired intercellular communication in the parenchyma and endothelium of lung tissue, leading to severe thromboembolic complications in patients with multiple diseases.

How to cite this article:
Pencheva MM, Genova SN. SARS-CoV-2 induced changes in the lungs based on autopsy cases.Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2023;66:19-23

How to cite this URL:
Pencheva MM, Genova SN. SARS-CoV-2 induced changes in the lungs based on autopsy cases. Indian J Pathol Microbiol [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Mar 23 ];66:19-23
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