Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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The role of R21 expression in differential diagnosis of melanocytic lesions

1 Department of Pathology, Gaziantep Nizip State Hospital, Gaziantep, Turkey
2 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Didem Turcan,
Department of Pathology, Gaziantep Nizip State Hospital, Gaziantep
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpm.ijpm_1146_21

Background: Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an intracellular signal transmitter involved in the regulation of melanocyte growth, proliferation, and melanogenesis. R21 is a monoclonal antibody against the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) protein. Various nuclear and cytoplasmic R21 expression patterns in melanocytic lesions have been previously reported. Pan-nuclear staining was defined as specific for melanoma and was found supportive in the assessment of surgical margins. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the different expression patterns of R21 immunostain and investigate its effectiveness in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous malignant and benign melanocytic lesions. Settings and Design: Fifty invasive cutaneous melanoma and 50 benign melanocytic proliferation were included in the study. Material and Methods: Paraffin blocks that best reflected tumor morphology were studied via immunohistochemical staining for R21. For all patterns, the cases showing staining in 25% or more tumor cells were considered as positive. Statistical analysis used: Yates' Chi-square, Pearson Chi-square exact test, Spearman correlation were used. Results and Conclusions: Dot-like Golgi staining was characteristic for nevi (12/50) and seen only in one melanoma. Pan-nuclear staining was striking for melanoma (36/50). This pattern was observed in 2 dysplastic and 3 common melanocytic nevi too. None of the Spitz nevi expressed R21 in pan-nuclear pattern. For the diagnosis of melanoma, sensitivity and specificity of the pan-nuclear expression were 72% and 90%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were found as 87% and 76%. R21, a second-generation immunohistochemical marker, can be used in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant melanocytic lesions.

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