Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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CD68 expression in the placenta of gestational diabetic mothers: A case–control study

1 Department of Pathology, ESIC Medical College and Superspeciality Hospital, Sanathnagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical sciences (AIIMS), Bibinagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mallareddy Medical College for Women, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Rohini Motwani,
Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bibinagar, Hyderabad, Telangana - 508 126
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpm.ijpm_99_22

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with the onset or first recognition during pregnancy and is the most common metabolic complication of pregnancy. Significant maternal and fetal complications can result from undiagnosed or inadequately treated GDM. Aim: To investigate the difference in the expression of the CD-68 marker in the Hofbauer cells (HCs) and their distribution within the villi in the placentas of diabetic and non-diabetic mothers. Methods and Materials: Sixty placentas were included in the study, 30 as controls and 30 from mothers with diagnosed GDM as cases. Full-thickness cross sections of placentas were obtained. Tissue processing was done, followed by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). A study of CD68 markers (placental macrophages) was done using standard protocols of immunohistochemistry. Statistical Analysis: Frequencies and percentages of Hofbauer cells (HCs) found in case and control placental tissue were calculated. Student's t-test was used to compare two groups using SPSS 13.0 software. When P is 0.0001, differences were considered statistically significant. Results and Conclusion: We studied the distribution and number of fetal macrophages (CD68+) in diabetic and non-diabetic placentas. The immunostained CD68+ cell count was identified to be significantly higher in the GDM placenta. In relation to fetal blood vessels in the villus stroma of the GDM placenta in comparison to control, CD68+ cells were found more frequently. This study shows a significant increase in the number of Hofbauer cells in the placenta of mothers with GDM in comparison to control (P < 0.0001). An increase in macrophages in these placentae might be related to the protective mechanism against inflammation. Further studies are required to investigate the mechanism in detail.

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