Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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The prognostic effect of immunohistochemical staining rates in patients with non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer

1 Department of Urology, Aksaray University Training and Research Hospital, Aksaray, Turkey
2 Department of Medical Pathology, Aksaray University Training and Research Hospital, Aksaray, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Aykut Demirci,
Nevşehir Street No: 117, 68200 Aksaray
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpm.ijpm_1236_21

Context: Despite the follow-up protocols developed in non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients, progression and recurrence could not be prevented. Aims: We aimed to investigate whether proteins such as OCT-4, CD47, p53, Ki-67, and Survivin, which increase in bladder cancer cells, can be used as prognostic markers for patients with non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Settings and Design: The study included a total of 89 patients with newly diagnosed non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer between January 2015 and December 2020. Methods and Material: Levels of OCT-4, CD47, p53, Kİ-67, and Survivin proteins in cancer cells were determined with a semi-quantitative immunohistochemical experiment. Pathological data and survival rates were compared according to the staining rates. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained in the study were analyzed statistically with SPSS 22.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: The mean age of the patients was 64.25 ± 9.91 years, and the median follow-up period was 55 months. Recurrence rate was determined to be 36% (n = 32), and the rate of progression at 40.4% (n = 36). The staining rates were stronger for each marker in the progression group and advanced-stage tumors (p < 0.001). The findings of the multivariate analysis carried out as part of the study showed that older age and higher tumor stage were independent risk factors for recurrence-free survival (HR = 1.048 and 7.074, respectively; P = 0.02). Also, higher tumor stages, diameters, and grades were associated with reduced progression-free survival (HR = 0.105, 0.395, 0.225, respectively; P < 0.05). Conclusions: Although immunohistochemical staining rates are promising, it is more appropriate to use tumor characteristics when assessing survival rate in patients with non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

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