Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 301-306

The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on term placentae

1 Department of Pathology, KMCH Institute of Health Sciences and Research, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, KMCH Institute of Health Sciences and Research, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
R Shivapriya
Flat No. 402, Icc Diya Apartment, Grg Chandra Gandhi Nagar, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpm.ijpm_237_21

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Background: Coronavirus 2019 infection (COVID 19) is an ongoing pandemic caused by pathogenic RNA viruses called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2). It has affected people of all ages, with high morbidity and mortality among the elderly and immunocompromised population. Limited information is available on the effects of COVID-19 infection on pregnancy. Aim: To describe the histopathological changes in the placental tissue of SARS-CoV-2 infected term mothers with no comorbidities and to correlate with neonatal outcome. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, KMCH institute of health sciences and research, Coimbatore from May 1, 2020 to November 30, 2020 for 6 months. Placental tissues of all COVID-19-positive term mothers with no comorbidities were included in this study. Histopathological examination of placentae was carried out and clinical data of mothers and newborn babies were obtained from medical records. Results: Histopathological examination of 64 placental tissue of COVID-19 mothers showed predominantly the features of fetal vascular malperfusion like stem villi vasculature thrombus, villous congestion, and avascular villi. No significant correlation was obtained in comparison with parity and symptomatic status of the mothers. However, histopathological changes were more prominent among symptomatic patients. The newborn babies born to these mothers showed no adverse outcome. Conclusion: This study concluded that though COVID-19 infection in normal term pregnant women was associated with increased prevalence of features of fetal vascular malperfusion, there was no significant morbidity in the health status of both COVID-19 mothers and their neonates.

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