Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 58-62

Correlation NKX2.2 IHC and EWSR1 break-apart FISH in the diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma: Can combined NKX2.2 and CD99 immunoexpression obviate or minimize the need of FISH testing? First assessment study from Indian tertiary cancer care center

1 Department of Pathology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Saket, Delhi, India
2 Department of Musculoskeletal Oncology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Saket, Delhi, India
3 Department of Radiology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Saket, Delhi, India
4 Department of Orthopedics, Max SuperSpeciality Hospital, Saket, Delhi, India
5 Department of Molecular Pathology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Saloni Pahwa
Department of Pathology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Delhi - 110 085
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpm.ijpm_535_21

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Context: Ewing sarcoma (ES) are malignant small round cell tumors (MSRCT) characterized by rearrangements of EWSR1 gene. Although gold standard for diagnosis is detection of specific fusion genes by molecular testing, these ancillary tests are costly and only available in limited number of settings. There is a persuasive evidence for reliability of NKX2.2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a surrogate marker for EWSR1 gene rearrangement in ES. Aims: The aim of this study is to correlate the NKX2.2 immuno-expression with genetically confirmed ES cases and also to assess the reliability and accuracy of NKX2.2 along with combined positivity of NXX2.2 and CD99 in diagnosing ES and differentiating it from other relevant histological mimics. Settings and Design: The present study is a retrospective study conducted over a period of 6-year duration in a tertiary cancer care center. Methods and Material: We evaluated NKX2.2 immunoexpression in 35 genetically confirmed cases of ES and also in pertaining differential entities (n = 58) of ES including rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 20), lymphoblastic lymphoma (n = 14), Wilms tumor (n = 10), poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma (n = 4), small-cell osteosarcoma (n = 4), neuroblastoma (n = 5), and mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (n = 1). CD99 was performed in the category of MSRCTs showing NKX2.2 positivity to evaluate combined specificity for the diagnosis of ES. Results: Of the 35 genetically confirmed cases of ES, 29 cases (83%) showed NKX2.2-positive expression (83% sensitivity). Compared to ES, NKX2.2 was positive in only 05% cases (3/58 cases) of non-ES MSRCT. Only two of five cases of neuroblastomas and one case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma showed NKX2.2 positivity. CD99 positivity was seen in 100% of ES and in the single case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. All five cases (100%) of neuroblastoma were negative for CD99. Conclusions: The presented study, which is the first from an Indian oncology center, showed NKX2.2 IHC is quite reliable in diagnosis of ES in the right clinicopathological context. With remarkable sensitivity and specificity of NKX2.2 IHC for diagnosis of ES, we propose that combined positivity of CD99 and NKX2.2 IHC can obviate or minimize the need of EWSR1 gene rearrangement molecular testing for diagnosis of ES.

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