Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 44-53

Immunohistochemical appraisal of epithelial mesenchymal transition type III in gall bladder cancer

1 Department of Pathology, Lady Harding Medical College, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Pathology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Surgical Oncology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Medanta Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Preeti Agarwal
Department of Pathology, KGMU, Lucknow - 226 003, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpm.ijpm_876_21

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Background: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the heart of invasion. EMT associated with cancer progression and metastasis is known as type III EMT. Beta-catenin, E-cadherin, and MMP9 markers of EMT are routinely employed for diagnostic purposes. Aims: We employed these markers to study EMT by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in gall bladder cancer (GBC) with respect to depth of tumor invasion, clinical outcome, and disease-free survival. Settings and Design: This was a prospective case-control study. Material and Methods: Seventy gall bladders were included (50 GBC and 20 CC). After detailed histology, immunoexpression was studied in terms of percentage and strength of expression. Statistics Analysis Used: Expression was compared between CC and GBC by Student t test and analysis of variance. Kaplan–Meier was used for survival analysis, and the extent of agreement (“Kappa”) was calculated. Results and Conclusions: The age of incidence of GBC was 49.40 (+11.6) years with female predominance (F:M = 4:1). In 88% (44/50) of GBC, the fundus was involved. Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma was most frequent [54%; 27/50]. Significant downregulation of E-cadherin (P = 0.022) and beta-catenin (P < 0.001) and upregulation in MMP9 (P < 0.001) were seen in GBC with respect to CC with significant association among them. MMP9 expression was significantly associated with higher tumor stage but with chemotherapeutic response. Our results display that epithelial-mesenchymal transition type III plays a role in GBC invasion. MMP9 overexpression and loss of membranous beta-catenin may be considered a marker for poor clinical outcomes and advanced disease.

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