Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 24-30

Gastrointestinal tract involvement in patients with potential celiac disease beyond the small intestine: An early proof with IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase-2 antibody deposits

1 Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Govind Makharia
Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpm.ijpm_354_22

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Background: IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase-2 antibody (anti-TG2Ab) deposits in intestinal and extraintestinal organs have been used to link the respective pathological changes in these organs with celiac disease (CeD). Aims: To know if parts of intestine other than the duodenum, such as esophagus, stomach, and colon, have any pathology related to potential CeD or have mucosal IgA anti-TG2 Ab deposits. Settings and Design: A prospective case–control study conducted from April 2018 to December 2019. Materials and Methods: Nine patients with potential CeD and 27 age- and gender-matched patients with irritable bowel syndrome were recruited as cases and controls, respectively. Mucosal biopsies were collected from esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and rectosigmoid regions, histological changes were evaluated, and IgA anti-TG2 Ab deposits were analyzed in these regions by two-color immunohistochemical staining. Statistics: Data were analyzed using statistical software Stata 14.0. Results: No distinct difference in mucosal lymphocytosis were identified between biopsies of patients with potential CeD and controls at the following sites: esophagus (11.1% vs 0%, P = 0.079), stomach (14.3% vs 7.7%, P = 0.590), and rectum (20% vs 0%, P = 0.067). Co-localized IgA anti-TG2Ab deposits were observed more in potential CeD than in controls at esophagus 22.2% (2/9) vs 0%, P = 0.012; stomach 66.7% (6/9) vs 11.5% (3/26), P < 0.001; and duodenum 66.7% (6/9) vs 0%, P < 0.001 but not at rectum 0% (0/4) vs 0% (0/25). Conclusion: Although histological changes are not distinct, a subset of subjects with potential CeD has pan-intestinal involvement other than in the duodenum.

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