Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 106-110

The baneful alliance of COVID-19 and mucormycosis: Histopathological concerns

1 Department of Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Bhagya Shree Hospital and Trauma Centre, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Anshu Singh
H. No L-13, LLRM Medical College Campus, Garh Road, Meerut - 250 004, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpm.ijpm_192_22

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Background: Mucormycosis, once a rare fungal disease, has now shown a surge in cases, and its epidemiology in India is intriguing. Rising incidence confers the necessity of defining the demography of the population at risk, early diagnosis, and recommendations for the management of mucormycosis in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection. Aims: To study the clinico-epidemological profile, risk factors, and histopathological features of COVID-19-associated Mucormycosis (CAM). Setting and Design: This is a retrospective observational study. Material and Methods: Fifty-six biopsy specimens taken from patients of COVID-19 with clinical suspicion of mucormycosis were included. Results: Diabetes mellitus, corticosteroids, and oxygen therapy were the most common risk factors associated with CAM. The mean duration between the onset of symptoms of COVID-19 and onset of CAM was 25.2 ± 15.3 days. Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) was present in 24.5% of the cases, with a survival rate of 58.3%. Histopathology showed tissue invasion by branching broad-based, pale, fungal hyphae consistent with mucor in 49 (87.5%) cases. Inflammation was acute neutrophilic type in 61.2% of the patients with a survival rate of 63.33%. The survival rate with chronic non-granulomatous and chronic granulomatous was 100% and 81.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Keeping a high index of suspicion for mucormycosis in COVID-19 by all medical fraternities of the health community in the existence of risk factors is the need of the hour for prompt diagnosis. Biopsy of antral necrotic tissue should be performed immediately after suspicion for histopathological study to confirm the diagnosis of mucormycosis and predict prognosis depending on the type of inflammation incited, fungal morphology, load, and necrosis.

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