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Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 65  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 310-317

Recent advances in the diagnosis of immune mediated demyelinating neuropathies


1 Department of Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Madhu Nagappa
Additional Professor, Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijpm.ijpm_50_22

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Inflammatory neuropathies are a group of acquired neuropathies which could be due to autoimmune, infectious, paraneoplastic, or paraproteinemic etiology. The etiological diagnosis of inflammatory neuropathy is not simple, and often requires combination of clinical, electrophysiological, and histopathological findings to arrive at a precise diagnosis which is important for management of the disorder. Whereas there are comprehensive and sensitive panel of serological tests available for diagnosis of the infectious, paraneoplastic, paraproteinemic neuropathies, the diagnosis of immune-mediated demyelinating neuropathies remain a considerable challenge as there is both clinical and pathological overlap. Newer non-invasive methodologies such as high-resolution ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and importantly, serological testing for antibodies are emerging, and it is essential for the practicing pathologist to be up-to-date with emerging modalities. In this review, we focus on the approach to diagnosis of immune-mediated demyelinating neuropathies.


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