Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 65  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 864-868

Anaplasia in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: An under reported entity

1 Department of Pathology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Pediatric Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Reena Tomar
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpm.ijpm_178_21

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Background: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. Anaplasia is a rare phenomenon seen in childhood RMS. The most common histologic subtype was Embryonal followed by Alveolar and spindle subtype. Design: A total of 11 cases of pediatric RMS were selected from January 2017 to June 2019 presenting at various sites. Out of 11 cases, 2 were further diagnosed as Embryonal, 2 as Alveolar, 2 as Pleomorphic, 1 as Spindle subtype and rest 4 as RMS-NOS based on morphology. All cases were positive for Desmin. The presence of cells with lobated, hyperchromatic nuclei at least three times larger than the tumor cell (anaplastic cells) was selected as the main criterion to diagnose Anaplasia. Results: Out of the total 11 cases, anaplasia was seen in 7 cases. Out of these seven, five cases showed Focal Anaplasia (FA) (71.4%) and 2 cases showed Diffuse Anaplasia (DA) (28.6%). Out of 2 cases of Embryonal RMS one exhibited focal anaplasia (50%). One case of Spindle RMS showed diffuse anaplasia, 2 cases of pleomorphic RMS showed focal anaplasia. Out of 3 cases of RMS- NOS, 2 exhibited focal anaplaisa and one displayed Diffuse anaplasia. Both Alveolar RMS had no features of anaplasia. Conclusion: Presence of Anaplasia is a frequent observation in pediatric RMS. Anaplasia is often under reported in pediatric RMS. Pathologist should be more aware of this rare phenomenon.

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