Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 65  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 832-838

Molecular stratification of high-grade urothelial carcinoma by immunohistochemistry with its histomorphological and clinical correlation

1 Department of Pathology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Rohini, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Research, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Rohini, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Meenakshi Kamboj
Department of Pathology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Sector 5, Rohini, New Delhi – 110 085
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpm.ijpm_95_21

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Introduction: Urothelial carcinoma poses a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The recent classification of Tumors of Urinary System by World Health Organization fourth edition) has elucidated its molecular subtypes and its associated prognostic significance. Methods: We used immunohistochemistry marker expression (CK5/6, CK20, CD44, EGFR) as a surrogate marker, to stratify 150 cases of high-grade urothelial carcinoma into the intrinsic molecular subtypes. A correlation was also done with immunohistochemical markers p53, p21, E-cadherin and Ki-67. Results: On subtyping, 47.3% cases were basal, 42.7% luminal and 10% remained unclassified. We did not find GATA3 useful for molecular stratification in our study. Muscle invasion was seen in 59% of basal and 31% of luminal subtype (P = 0.016). Squamous differentiation was most commonly associated with basal subtype (P < 0.001). EGFR expression was seen in 62% of basal and 38% of luminal subtype (P = 0.014), and thus can be used as an additional marker for molecular stratification. Overexpression of p53 was seen in 64% cases of muscle invasive and 36% of non-muscle invasive high-grade carcinomas (P < 0.0001). An inverse relationship was observed between p53 and p21 immunoexpression (r = –0.494) (P < .0001). The overall survival at 1- and 2-year interval was more in the luminal subtype, suggesting an early mortality in basal group, (P = 0.827), and at 6 years both the groups had almost similar results. Conclusion: High-grade urothelial carcinoma is challenging in terms of therapeutic strategy. Increased understanding of underlying molecular basis helps identifying targetable treatment options, and newer biomarkers will enhance predictive and prognostic stratification.

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