Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 65  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 781-785

Spectrum of histopathological changes and its quantification using a scoring system in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

1 Department of Pathology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel
2 Department of Pathology, M.L.N. Medical College, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Gastroenterology, M.L.N. Medical College, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Kachnar Varma
Department of Pathology, M.L.N. Medical College, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpm.ijpm_5_21

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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of histopathological and histomorphometric features in oesophageal biopsy of patients presenting with symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Material and Methods: Present study included 42 patients and 12 controls. Complete clinical evaluation followed by endoscopic examination of the patients was done and multipleoesophageal biopsies were taken. Biopsies were processed routinely and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and examined for any changes related to GERD. Morphometric assessment was done by using Leitz optical micrometer. The histological scoring was done based on the parameters: basal cell hyperplasia, stromal papillae elongation, cells with irregular nuclear contour (CINC), eosinophilic infiltrate, gastric and intestinal metaplasia. A numerical score was assigned to each parameter and sum of these scores represented the total score. Statistics: The statistical analysis was done using graph pad prism, Medcalc software and Windows MS office. P value and mean standard deviation (SD) was calculated. Results: The endoscopic findings of all the controls and 83.33% of patients were normal. Only 16.67% of patients had reflux associated changes of varying grades on endoscopy. Oesophageal biopsy of all patients had changes related to GERD on histology. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that cells with irregular nuclear contour were T- lymphocytes. The mean (SD) histological scoring of control and patients were 1.75 (0.62) and 5.66 (1.31) respectively. The difference was considered to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). Thus, it was suggested that a cut-off of histological score > 3 can be used to indicate GERD. Conclusion: Patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms can have normal endoscopic findings but can be diagnosed on the basis of histological changes in the squamous epithelium. Scoring of the histopathological parameters along with the cut-off value can give a definitive diagnosis of GERD.

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