Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 64  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 651-654

Acute rheumatic fever – A pathological analysis of clinically missed cases

1 Intern, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Pathology (Cardiovascular and Thoracic Division), Seth GS Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 Consultant Cardiologist, Mahatma Gandhi Mission Hospitals, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Pradeep Vaideeswar
Department of Pathology (Cardiovascular and Thoracic Division), Seth GS Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_1422_20

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Background: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and its post-inflammatory sequel chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are endemic in the Indian setting. Despite the updated Jones criteria, many cases of ARF remain undiagnosed or are missed. Aims: This study aims to analyze pathological profiles of such cases and their importance in context of clinical presentation and Jones criteria. Materials and Methods: A 22-year retrospective observational study of ARF was conducted in the Department of Pathology in a tertiary care institute. The cases were categorized as 1. Those fulfilling and 2. those partially or not fulfilling the Jones Criteria. Based on the autopsy findings, the lesions were classified as categorized mitral stenosis and/or regurgitation (MS ± MR) and pure mitral regurgitation (MR). Statistical Analysis: Nil. Results: In 22 years, among 697 cases of autopsied cases of RHD, there were 59 cases (8.5%) of ARF. Among them, seven cases fulfilled the Jones criteria; five of them were clinically diagnosed. The remaining 52 cases (88.1%, 34 with MS ± MR and 18 with MR) did not fulfill or partially fulfilled the Jones criteria and were not diagnosed. A total of 18 patients (30.5%) had the first attack of ARF, whereas recurrences were noted in the remaining patients (69.5%). Conclusions: The study indicates that the typical manifestations of ARF under Jones criteria may not be present, especially in cases with recurrence. Hence, a presumptive or possible diagnosis of ARF can be made with presence of minor criteria or strong clinical suspicion in such cases.

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