Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 61  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 553-556

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - CD4+ T-cell malignancy in CD4+ T-cell deficient status: A paradox

1 Department of Hematopathology, AmPath, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Department of Medicine, Sunshine Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
3 Department of Hematopathology, Lifeline Tapadia Diagnostic Center, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Manu Goyal
Department of Hematopathology, Ampath, AOI and Citizens Hospitals, Serilingampally, Nallagandla, Hyderabad - 500 019, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_119_17

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CD4 counts along with viral loads are important parameters in the monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is known to be an etiological agent for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Coinfection of HTLV-I and HIV is well known in regions with high seroprevalence, and there is no published data in the Indian scenario. We present an interesting case of occurrence of CD4+ T-cell proliferation in a known beta thalassemia major with acquired HIV seropositivity accompanied by simultaneously increasing CD4+ counts and viral loads. Further workup revealed ATLL with an underlying HTLV infection.

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