| Abstract|| |
Cavernous hemangiomatous polyp of uterus is a rare vascular malformation of the uterus. Common sites of malformation in uterine wall include serosa, myometrium, and endometrium and most common presentation is diffuse involvement of uterus. Patients usually present with obstetric and gynecological complications ranging from menorrhagia, intermenstrual bleeding, infertility, and pregnancy-associated complications which includes maternal and fetal demise due to excessive bleeding. Uterine hemangiomas occur at all age groups without preponderance in any decades and are classified into congenital and acquired. Congenital hemangiomas may be associated with hereditary diseases whereas acquired hemangiomas are thought to be associated with both physical changes and hormone alterations.
Keywords: Cavernous hemangioma, polyp, uterus
|How to cite this article:|
Shahid M, Nisar N, Saremian J. Cavernous hemangiomatous polyp of uterus: A report of case and review of literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2016;59:220-2
|How to cite this URL:|
Shahid M, Nisar N, Saremian J. Cavernous hemangiomatous polyp of uterus: A report of case and review of literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2022 Jan 20];59:220-2. Available from: https://www.ijpmonline.org/text.asp?2016/59/2/220/182024
| Introduction|| |
Vascular malformation of the uterus and cervix is uncommon. Common sites of involvement in uterine wall include serosa, myometrium, and endometrium. Most common presentation is diffuse involvement of myometrium. Patients usually present with obstetric and gynecological complications ranging from menorrhagia, intermenstrual bleeding, infertility, and pregnancy-associated complications which includes maternal and fetal demise due to excessive bleeding.,,, Uterine hemangiomas are classified into congenital and acquired. Congenital hemangiomas may be associated with hereditary diseases, including Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, tuberous sclerosis, blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Maffucci syndrome, and Kasabach–Merritt syndrome. Acquired hemangiomas are thought to be associated with both physical changes and hormone alterations. Here, we report a case of cavernous hemangiomatous polyp of the uterus which presented as postmenopausal bleeding.
| Case Report|| |
The patient is a 57-year-old postmenopausal female, Gravida 2 Para 2, presented with uterine bleeding for last 1 year. She achieved menopause 5–6 years back and was not on any hormonal treatment. Her both previous pregnancies had resulted in full-term normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries. She has an average build and medium height and general examination of heart, chest, and abdomen did not reveal any abnormality. Her last pap smear 3 months back which was negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. Speculum examination of vagina revealed atrophic changes and 1 cm × 2 cm exophytic, pink, nonfriable vaginal mass 2 cm inferior to cervix on the right vaginal wall. Bimanual examination revealed an anteverted, smooth, and multiparous uterus. Transvaginal ultrasonography findings were anteverted uterus measuring 7.58 cm × 4.77 cm × 4.90 cm with endometrial thickness of 1.65 mm. Endometrial cavity was distorted by 2.02 cm × 2.65 cm hyperechoic mass and a provisional diagnosis of endometrial polyp was made. The myometrium was normal. The patient underwent hysteroscopic removal of endometrial polyp. Microscopic examination revealed large cystically dilated blood vessels with thin walls lined by a single layer of flat endothelial cells in a background of atrophic endometrium [Figure 1]. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for CD31, CD 34, and factor VIII antigen supporting histological diagnosis of cavernous hemangiomatous polyp [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: Section shows polypoid tissue fragments with cystically dilated vascular spaces filled with blood and few endometrial glands in background (H and E, ×5), CD 31 positivity (IHC, ×10), CD 34 positivity (IHC, ×10), Factor VIII antigen positivity (IHC, ×10)|
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| Discussion|| |
Vascular tumors are rare in female genital tract, particularly in uterus uterine hemangiomas were first described in 1897, and were an incidental discovery at an autopsy after a young woman developed anemia and dyspnea and died 24 hours after delivering twins. Clinically significant vascular lesions which have been described in the uterus include capillary and cavernous hemangiomas, arteriovenous malformations, angiomyomas, and hemangioendotheliomas. Cavernous hemangiomatous polyp of the uterus is a rare vascular neoplasm in which there is proliferation of arterial and venous vessels of various sizes with cavernous like arteriovenous fistulas in uterine wall which replaces the normal myometrium.,, Review of literature of uterine hemangioma reveals youngest patient was a 14-year-old girl who underwent hysterectomy for life-threatening bleeding  and the oldest patient was a 49-year-old woman who underwent hysterectomy for menorrhagia and dysmenorrheal. This case presented as a postmenopausal bleeding, and only a few cases have been described in literature in postmenopausal females. The clinical symptoms are varied which ranges from asymptomatic to abdominal pain, excessive vaginal bleeding, anemia, infertility, and maternal and pregnancy-associated complications. However, in gynecological practice, these patients usually present with recurrent menorrhagia, as seen in our case.
Uterine body is the most common site for hemangioma, but they can also involve uterine corpus or the cervix. Hemangiomas can be diffuse or localized. Most common presentation of a localized hemangioma is as an endometrial polyp or a localized mass in the myometrium. Diffuse hemangioma commonly present as transmural involvement of uterine wall from endometrium to the serosa. Histologically, uterine hemangiomas can be divided into a capillary or a cavernous type. The capillary type is composed of small-sized capillary vessels and is usually confined to the endometrium, whereas the cavernous type demonstrates large dilated vascular channels and diffusely involves the uterus. There are theories supporting the role of hormones in pathogenesis of acquired hemangioma, however, their direct association was not confirmed by immunohistochemical stains for estrogen and progesterone receptors. Indirect evidence suggests that estrogen may have a prominent role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis through various angiogenetic factors resulting in the formation of hemangioma although direct association is still unclear.
Differential diagnosis of uterine hemangioma includes lesions with vascular dilatation such as lymphangioma, arteriovenous malformation, and adenomatoid tumor. Uterine hemangioma can be diagnosed by ultrasonography that reveals a thickened uterine wall which is composed of cavernous fluid filled spaces with a turbulent flow in these spaces. Other diagnostic modalities which can aid ultrasonography in diagnosis are Doppler, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography imaging.
Treatment for uterine hemangiomas remains controversial. Conservative treatments include carbon dioxide laser excision, knife excision, cryotherapy, radiotherapy, electrocauterization, internal artery ligation, uterine artery embolization, local excision, conization, and laser ablation.,, Hysterectomy may be considered for hemangioma, if they are refractory to conservative treatments. Conservative management is the treatment of choice in young females before hysterectomy. Our patient presented with postmenopausal bleeding not responding to medical treatment and underwent hysteroscopic polypectomy. Cavernous hemangiomatous polyp can present as postmenopausal bleeding and polypectomy can be treatment of choice if rest of uterus does not have any pathology. It is important for a pathologist to recognize this entity, not only because of its potential for life-threating complications, but also because of the need for individualized treatment.,
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