Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 57  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 400-406

An appraisal of clinicopathological parameters in Japanese encephalitis and changing epidemiological trends in upper Assam, India

1 Multidisciplinary Research Laboratory (ICMR), Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Silchar Medical College, Ghungur, Silchar, Assam, India
3 Virology Division, Regional Medical Research Centre, Northeast Region (ICMR), Dibrugarh, Assam, India
4 Department of Microbiology, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, India
5 Department of Microbiology, DBT Healthcare Molecular Biology Laboratory, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, India
6 Biostatistics Division, Regional Medical Research Centre, Northeast Region (ICMR), Dibrugarh, Assam, India

Correspondence Address:
Saurav Jyoti Patgiri
Research Scientist II, Multidisciplinary Research Laboratory (ICMR), Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh - 786 002
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Source of Support: Financial support from the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Govt. of India (DBT Sanction NO. BT/Med/15/ Vision-NER/2011, Date: November 2nd 2011), Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.138732

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Context: Japanese encephalitis (JE), an acute mosquito-borne viral disease, is one of the leading causes of viral encephalitis in the South-East Asian region. JE is endemic in Assam. The morbidity and mortality due to JE is significant with outbreaks every year during the monsoons. Aims: The aim was to study the clinicopathological profile of JE; to examine their role in predicting disease outcome; and to document the increase in the incidence of JE among the adult population in this region. Materials and Methods: Clinically suspected acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases admitted in Assam Medical College and Hospital during the period of May 2011 to April 2012 were tested by JE virus specific Immunoglobulin M capture ELISA. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Out of 424 AES cases, 194 were JE positive. The occurrence of JE in adults was higher (P < 0.001) than the pediatric age group. The study recorded a high rate of renal dysfunction in JE cases. A single case of JE induced abortion and two cases of JE-neurocysticercosis co-infections were documented. Regression analysis revealed that adult population, unconsciousness, paresis and elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein level were associated with a worse prognosis in JE cases. Mortality in JE positive cases was higher than the JE negative cases (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The study attempts to highlight the role played by a combination of clinical and laboratory parameters in assessing the severity and outcome in JE and may help in directing the limited medical resources toward those that need it the most.

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