Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 57  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 101-104

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features: A case report

1 Department of Histopathology, SRM Institute of Medical Sciences, Vadapalani, Chennai, India
2 Head of the Department of Neurosurgery, SRM Institute of Medical Sciences, Vadapalani, Chennai, India

Correspondence Address:
Sadiya Niamathullah
No 21, Flat no T-1, Ameer Regency, Balaji Nagar 2nd street, Royapettah, Chennai - 14, India. Pin - 600 014.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.130913

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Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma has been considered as an astrocytic tumor with relatively favorable prognosis. It corresponds to WHO Grade-II neoplasm. Recently, several patterns with relatively poor prognosis have been recorded and a new concept of "PXA with anaplastic features" has been proposed. The present case is about a 9-year-old girl who presented with symptoms of recurrent headache, seizures and poor academic performance. MRI revealed left fronto-parietal irregular enhancing mass lesion with callosal involvement and right mid-brain arteriovenous malformation. Clinical and radiological examination was suggestive of a high grade glial neoplasm/PNET. A diagnosis of high grade glial neoplasm was rendered on the squash smears submitted for frozen sections based on the presence of spindle cells, admixed with pleomorphic bizarre, giant cells with multilobated nuclei showing few atypical mitosis and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Frontal craniotomy with debulking of the tumor was performed and permanent sections revealed a biphasic glial neoplasm with spindle cells arranged in fascicles admixed with bizarre multinucleated giant cells showing abundant vacuolated and lipidized cytoplasm, nuclear hyperchromasia with intranuclear inclusions. Eosinophilic granular bodies, mitosis of 7/10 HPF, micro vascular proliferation, necrosis and invasion into the underlying brain parenchyma were noted. With these histomorphological findings a diagnosis of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features was rendered.

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