Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 1998  |  Volume : 41  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 85-98

Cytohormonal evaluation of vaginal smears by phase contrast microscopy with special reference to progesterone deficiency pattern during early pregnancy as predictor of abortion.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi

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W Raina
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 9581082

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Cytohormonal profile of unstained vaginal smears were studied under phase contrast microscope to define various cell morphologies in detail and build up of smear pattern serially in various stages of menstrual cycle and first trimester of pregnancy. The findings were correlated clinically and found comparable to Papanicolaou stained smears. The maturation index was calculated more objectively by phase contract microscopy because of the refractile appearance of the pyknotic nuclei of superficial cells. The prognostication of abortion was done by combining abnormal maturation index and the presence of syncytiotrophoblasts in vaginal smears. Under phase contrast microscope, the sensitivity of abnormal smear was 87.5%, the specificity was 95%, the positive predictive value was 96.55% and the overall accuracy was 90% as compared to positive Papanicolaou smear whose sensitivity though 93%, had low specificity of 50% only. Phase contrast study appears to offer certain distinct advantage over the conventional light microscopy for quick, comprehensive and quantitative assessment of the study material. It allows the physician to detect changes in the material obtained from the patients without detour of laboratory fixation and staining. It is technically easy as errors in interpretation due to unsatisfactory fixation, staining and artefacts are obviated. Thus phase contrast microscopy offers an alternative and easy method of cytohormonal evaluation of wet and unstained smears.

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